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Body mass index google scholarly articles: Body Mass Index

Increased BMI is associated with excess health risks, including insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, Type II diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, asthma, arthritis, gallbladder disease, several cancers, depression, as well as with increased all-cause mortality [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ]. BMC Res Notes.

David Stewart
Saturday, August 5, 2017
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  • However, it has been coopted for this use because it is a readily obtained metric. Looking for your next opportunity?

  • The NHANES data body mass index google scholarly articles back to and up to also indicate scholaarly the relative mortality risk is lowest in men with a BMI of 25 to 30 in all age groups, that is, from the age of 25 years up to the age of 70 years. Not only is thigh fat greater in women than in men, but also women generally have a preponderance of slow-twitch fibers, whereas men have a preponderance of fast-twitch fibers in their quadriceps muscles, as do upper-body-obese women, 82 suggesting either genetic or earlier developmental differentiation events.

  • The continuing epidemics of obesity and diabetes in the United States. One of the primary advantages of using BMI in population health research is not only its centrality to key biological pathways leading to crucial health outcomes, but also that it is relatively straightforward to measure.

  • Underappreciated pioneers. Privacy Policy.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

Review: long-term impact of bariatric surgery on body weight, comorbidities, and nutritional status. Reprints and Permissions. Full size image. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Am J Public Health.

Blackburn H, Parlin RW. In this study, we examined the disagreement between BMI calculated using height and weight measured clinically and captured in electronic medical records and BMI calculated using height and weight obtained from driver licenses in body mass index google scholarly articles large sample of Utah drivers. Alternatively, if BMI continues to be used, the categories and definitions should be changed to reflect the current distribution of BMIs in the general population. Thus, using the NIH-suggested criterion based on percent of body fat to define obesity, subjects with a BMI of 25, a group that would be considered to be essentially normal, were associated with a body fat mass that varied again between low normal to obese. Arch Intern Med. PLoS One. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies.

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A reassessment. Race was coded as 0 for non-Hispanic white, 1 for non-Hispanic black, and 2 for Hispanic subjects and as 3 for subjects of other races. The analytical data set included 32, participants with 9, deaths. Its location also can be determined. Jacobs, Maternal smoking during pregnancy and child overweight: systematic review and meta-analysis.

The obesity body mass index google scholarly articles pathophysiology and consequences of obesity. InKeys et al 16 severely criticized the msss of Metropolitan Life Insurance published data per se, and the then-published tables of desirable weight for height, as well as the tables used to define people who were underweight or overweight. Results Individuals, on average, tend to overestimate their height and underestimate their weight. Accuracy of body mass index in diagnosing obesity in the adult general population. Consent for publication Not applicable.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

The classification is least accurate for men whose BMI D places them in the underweight category: The public health and economic benefits of taxing sugar-sweetened beverages. At present, simple, accurate methods for measuring percent of body fat and, in particular, body fat in different fat depots are not available.

Fact sheet No. Background Globally, obesity has nearly doubled over the last three decades [ 1 ]. However, we cannot exclude the possibility of differences between the two machines. Garrow in3132 but the terminology was changed.

Indices of relative weight and obesity. These include articlex circumference, waist-to height ratio, waist-to-hip ratio, percent body fat, and fasting leptin levels, which may be more useful for predicting adiposity and associated health index google than BMI [ 71011121314151617 ]. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. In this regard, it should be recognized that the accumulation of fat in certain body areas as well as the total amount of fat accumulated has a strong genetic or at least a familial component that diminishes with age. Endocr Rev.

Background

For women in our scholarly articles, the difference between height D and height C appears to increase with age, with older women having, on average the largest difference between the values. Comparisons of measured and self-reported anthropometric variables and blood pressure in a sample of Hong Kong female nurses. It could represent a means of maintaining body fat during pregnancy without an undue expansion in abdominal girth. The relatively poor correlation between percent of body fat mass and BMI also clearly has been shown more recently in the NHANES III database in which bioelectrical impedance was used to estimate the fat component of body composition. BMC Res Notes.

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Relation of weight and rate of increase in weight during childhood and adolescence to body size, blood pressure, fasting insulin, and lipids in young adults. The study of men born in The influence of obesity on longevity. The dramatic decrease in smoking is likely to have been a contributor.

Nephrol Dial Transplant. Published : 31 January Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Article Google Scholar.

We report that the prevalence of obesity inxex a BMI threshold may underestimate the true extent of obesity in the white population, particularly among young and elderly men. Smith Authors Alla Chernenko View author publications. Norgan NG. Vague J. Trends in cardiovascular disease risk factors in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus in the Framingham Heart Study.

The methods have been described in detail previously [ 5 ]. For example, Lean and colleagues artickes proposed that WC values of less than 94 cm in men and of less than 80 cm inrex women denote a low health risk; those ranging from 94 to cm in men and 80 to 88 cm in women, a moderately increased health risk; and those greater than cm in men and greater than 88 cm in women, a substantially increased health risk. Adiposity and mortality in men Am J Epidemiol 3 It should be understood that in Western population-based studies, generally the mean or median BMI is about 24 to For both men and women, the hazard ratios increased as the lower bound of the reference category increased. Early life exposures antibiotics, paracetamol and breast feeding were also associated with BMI. The degree of masculine differentiation of obesities: a factor determining predisposition to diabetes, atherosclerosis, gout, and uric calculous disease.

All of the above are significant issues. Early and late weight gain following smoking scholadly in the Lung Health Study. Instead, Keys et al, using google scholarly articles documented weight for height data, popularized the Quetelet Index in population-based studies. Regardless of the terminology and population reference issues, at present the BMI is the currency by which we define the obesity issue throughout the Western world. Alternatively, if BMI continues to be used, the categories and definitions should be changed to reflect the current distribution of BMIs in the general population. Similarly, we can correctly classify For example, the distribution of BMIs in adult American men and women was determined in in individuals Figure.

Obes Rev. Confronting a rising tide of eating disorders and obesity: treatment vs. Andres R. The relationship of weight-height indices of obesity to body fat content.

Sims EA. Use of the standard BMI groupings avoids problems of ad hoc and post hoc category bidy and facilitates between-study comparisons. PubMed Google Scholar 3. Obes Res Clin Pract. Metabolic Variables. Use of spline regression in an analysis of maternal prepregnancy body mass index and adverse birth outcomes: Does it tell us more than we already know? A Personal Perspective Regarding the Obesity Epidemic Currently there are 4 truths regarding historical changes in body weights and the prevalence of obesity.

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A particular problem with BMI as an index of obesity is that it does not differentiate between body lean mass and body fat mass; that is, a obdy can have a high BMI but still have a very low fat mass and vice versa. Based on data in the literature, there are several additional problems in determining associations between BMI and overall death rate or, more specifically, cardiovascular events or death rates. The obesity epidemic: pathophysiology and consequences of obesity. St Paul Pioneer Press. Morant GM.

Myths, Presumptions, and Facts about Obesity. The discrepancy varies by age and by BMI category. Comparisons of measured and self-reported anthropometric variables and blood pressure in a sample of Hong Kong female nurses. Browse Subject Areas? International Obesity Task Force.

Benn RT. Do the new Metropolitan Life Insurance weight-height tables correctly assess body frame and body fat relationships? They reported high positive correlations for both height and weight reported on the driver license and when measured during the study, despite the average discrepancies of 0. Harper AE.

We can then calculate googke the weight increase per year has only been 0. Skip to main content. Disordered lipid metabolism and the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Google Scholar. The equation had been derived previously using a subset of men and women from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study for whom whole body DXA scans provided valid measures of body fat mass.

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Ann Hum Biol. Cross-classifications of BMI D and BMI C bodh performed to determine to what extent self-reported height and weight from the driver licenses allows to classify individuals into specific BMI categories. Kuczmarski RJ. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased, but overall the cardiovascular death rate has decreased dramatically. Insulin resistance syndrome, body mass index and the risk of ischemic heart disease.

  • Issues to be Resolved When Relating BMI With Health Determinants Overall, a major unresolved issue is which factor of the following is more important in the prediction of comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, malignancies, or overall death rates.

  • Another issue is that the treatment status of the previously mentioned cardiovascular risk factors often is unknown or not stated; that is, the efficacy of treatment is rarely considered. PubMed Article Google Scholar

  • Article Google Scholar Misclassification into the wrong BMI categories when self-reported weight and height data are used is often quite high.

  • NuttallMD, PhD.

Oxford Academic. The use of a narrower and higher reference category progressively increased the point estimates. Some authors suggest correcting for the google scholarly error when using BMI based on self-reported height and weight when estimating health and mortality risks, noting that although corrected BMI performs better than uncorrected BMI, these corrections do not eliminate the bias completely [ 42 ]. Adult lean body mass declines with age: some longitudinal observations. All authors critically revised the manuscript and approved the final version before submission. Open in new tab. Discussion In our sample, self-reported height and weight differ from clinically measured values in a predictable manner: individuals, on average, overestimate their height and underestimate their weight, resulting in significant differences between BMI D using height and weight values from the driver license and BMI C using clinically measured height and weight.

Thus, it potentially compensates for a narrower build articls tall compared with short people. Grade 1 Obesity. Underweight was significantly associated with higher risk of death relative to high-normal weight. Accuracy of body mass index in diagnosing obesity in the adult general population. The WC measurement was made at minimal inspiration to the nearest 0.

Mid- Normal Weight. High tobacco consumption lowers body weight: a Mss randomization study of the Copenhagen General Population Study. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Couzin-Frankel J. This allowed us to understand the extent of variation in misreporting of height and weight by age and BMI.

Body-mass index and mortality among 1. Harper AE. Hence, it has several drawbacks. References 1. Int J Obes ; 33 : — In the class I obese BMI category, A single index of mortality and morbidity.

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The effects of changes in smoking prevalence on obesity prevalence in the United States. The EPIC data suggest that where fat is accumulated is much more important than merely the BMI, with the exception of those with an exceeding large total fat mass. Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of the sample Full size table. The homeostatic body weight regulation. Similarly, we can correctly classify

Ethnic variation in validity of artic,es of overweight and obesity using self-reported weight and height in American women and men: the third National Health and nutrition examination survey. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Obesity is a major global public health challenge of our times. Although the magnitude of the association of birth weight and BMI was the largest of any variable studied 0.

Gaesser GA. The mid-normal weight category and the low overweight category tended to be similar to the high-normal weight reference category. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network.

Distribution of discrepancies between height, weight and BMI values obtained from the driver license records artucles clinically measured values by age and BMI C. Ann Intern Med. McPherson R. New York: Knickerbocker Press; — Conclusions Utilising a single BMI threshold may underestimate the true extent of obesity in the white population, particularly among men. Int J Obes. J Am Coll Nutr.

References 1. Flegal, Brian K. Blackburn H, Parlin RW. Int J Epidemiol ; 44 : — Srikanthan P, Karlamangla AS. The EPIC data suggest that where fat is accumulated is much more important than merely the BMI, with the exception of those with an exceeding large total fat mass.

Overweight and the risk of sudden heart attack and sudden death NIH ; — Secular trends in cardiovascular disease risk factors according to body mass index in US adults. Centers body mass index google scholarly articles Disease Control and Prevention. Objective To examine whether the prevalence of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and the metabolic syndrome is greater in individuals with high compared with normal WC values within the same BMI category. Finally, by relying on a major medical provider as a source of clinical height and weight measurements, we are likely systematically omitting a portion of the population with limited access to health services, i.

  • The distribution curve clearly indicated a skewing toward an increase in BMI, and this trend has continued.

  • The indirect methods currently in use for estimating total percent of body fat include underwater weighing, an air displacement and density determination using a Bod Pod, a bioelectrical impedance analyzer, and a determination of the isotopically labeled water mass. Data on height and weight from driver license data can be a useful asset for monitoring population health in states where such information is collected, despite the degree of misreporting associated with self-report.

  • That is, individuals who accumulated excessive fat in the lower body segment were relatively spared from these complications. Stability of body weight in type 2 diabetes.

  • In contrast, excessive accumulation of body fat with maintenance or usually an increase in lean mass 2930 is at least compatible with life, even though it may eventually affect long-term survival. Benn RT.

  • Relationships between media use, body fatness and physical activity in children and youth: a meta-analysis. In children the major risk factors for a higher BMI were birth weight, television viewing, maternal smoking in the first year of and eating fast food.

Ethnic variation in validity of classification of overweight and obesity using self-reported weight and height in American women and men: the third National Health and nutrition examination survey. We were not able to establish a weight difference cut-off the same way, and opted for a data-driven approach, eliminating cases where difference between self-reported and clinically measured weight values were four or more standard deviations away from the mean. Although classification is less successful in the remaining BMI categories, the pattern of misclassification exhibits regularity: for each category, those that are misclassified tend to fall in the next highest category. It should be recognized that in the United States during the period from to not only has the mean weight increased by 24 lb among men aged 20 to 74 years, but also the height has increased by about 1 in. This also can be done using magnetic resonance imaging, but magnetic resonance imaging is very expensive. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

View Article Google Scholar Received : 18 June Revised IAP growth charts for height, weight and body mass index for 5- to year-old Indian children. In addition, we used microsimulation to estimate healthy LE and chronic disease-free LE which provides internally consistent results for each cohort.

Introduction

Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. AC contributed to the analysis and interpretation of data and drafted the manuscript. Utilising a single BMI ggoogle may underestimate the true extent of body mass index google scholarly articles in the white population, particularly among men. In this case, the paired Wilcoxon signed rank tests were selected because, while the two sets of measures being compared were obtained from the same sample of individuals, the distribution of differences between the two sets of measures were not normally distributed, hence warranting a non-parametric test. This indicates that there is a

However, the BMI indicates weight-for-height without considering artjcles in body composition and the contribution of body fat to overall body weight. Body weight and longevity. Santillan A, Camargo C. Secular trends in cardiovascular disease risk factors according to body mass index in US adults. Optimal thresholds for defining underweight and obesity will ultimately depend on risk assessment for impaired health and early mortality.

The distribution curve clearly indicated a skewing toward an increase in BMI, and this trend has continued. In general, it reflected whether one was narrowly or broadly built. Relative muscle mass is inversely associated with insulin resistance and prediabetes. Total and regional fat distribution is strongly influenced by genetic factors in young and elderly twins. Mahadevan, S. Jee, Confronting a rising tide of eating disorders and obesity: treatment vs.

Despite all the criticisms, the Metropolitan Life Tables criteria for defining obesity were widely used in the United States until the early s. Addict Behav. Privacy Policy. To eliminate likely erroneous BMI data while preserving as much data as possible, we applied the following methods:.

This was considered to be important because most of body fat is in the trunk. In summary, clinicians should be aware of the limitations of BMI as a artixles of obesity and the controversies surrounding the statistically derived cutoffs from large population studies. These and other such studies have opened a new avenue for the researchers to look into the intrinsic limitations of BMI in differentiating adipose tissue from lean body mass [ 56 ]. Relative muscle mass is inversely associated with insulin resistance and prediabetes. Klenk,

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Baumgartner RN: Body composition in healthy aging. The results were published as a technical report in It was first recognized in France by Dr Jon Vague 62 in the s. International Obesity Task Force. Nutr J.

This has important implications for individuals and societies. Hazard Ratio. Adolescents completed the questionnaires themselves. Excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, mase obesity JAMA 15 There were a number of other statistically significant associations but the effect sizes were small. Table 3 Partial life expectancy, chronic disease-free life expectancy and life expectancy with chronic diseases between ages 50 and 75 years by body mass index in each study cohort Full size table.

Underweight and obesity were associated with higher bodj relative to the high-normal weight category. We selected the cut-off for the difference between self-reported and clinically measured height based on the literature [ 32 ]. The obesity epidemic: pathophysiology and consequences of obesity. Spousal resemblance in the Canadian population: implications for the obesity epidemic.

Permissions Icon Permissions. Download citation. Huber LRB. The answer is not a simple yes as the literature is replete with contradictions. In addition, it is widely used in determining public health policies.

Based on the negative predictive value calculated for this group, The BMI expresses body weight kg relative to stature height, m 2 and it should be noted that adjustment for height in this index is suboptimal [ 18 ]. The pattern was similar for women for whom the prevalence of obesity according to the BMI was Skerlj B. Build as a Factor Influencing Longevity. Published : 23 June

Publications

Excessive mortality and causes of death in morbidly obese men. Search all BMC articles Search. Abdominal adiposity and coronary heart disease in women. Stat Bull.

  • BMI based on driver license records allows for accurate classification of individuals for those categorized as obese, and performs similarly to clinically measured BMI as a predictor of relative risk of type II diabetes mellitus. Int J Epidemiol ; 45 : —

  • In addition, in a recent study in individuals with or without diabetes in which the loss of lean body mass with aging was reported, the mean BMI in those without diabetes was

  • Evidence of cognitive bias from a randomized experiment in the US.

  • Willey P, Falsetti T. J Chronic Dis.

  • We also established that the variances in the two sets of measures were unequal, with few exceptions.

Validity of self-reported height and weight in women of reproductive age. Googld questionnaire was in two parts, the core articles on symptoms of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema, and an additional questionnaire regarding putative risk factors for asthma. Not only the societal but also the functional and indirectly the medical consequences of an excessive accumulation of fat also have been recognized for millennia. Indeed, it may be misleading in this regard, particularly in men. Clearly, location of fat in this area would help to maintain mobility.

Diabetes Care. Dulloo AG. Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity using standard body mass index categories: A systematic review and meta-analysis. High overweight was inconsistently associated with slightly higher risk of death relative to high-normal weight.

We selected the cut-off for the difference between self-reported and clinically measured height based on the index google scholarly [ 32 ]. Physique Sociale. Frequently, when correlations are made they also do not take into consideration a past as well as a current history of smoking, alcohol abuse, serious mental disorders or the duration of obesity, when in the life cycle it appeared, and whether the body weight is relatively stable or rapidly progressive, that is, type 1 or type 2 obesity. Any proposed re-use of the data that are the basis of this this paper are available subject to RGE and IRB approval as described here. Does abdominal obesity have a similar impact on cardiovascular disease and diabetes?

You can also search artticles this author in PubMed Google Scholar. However, why there is a preferential accumulation in the truncal location, that is, why they too develop an increase in visceral fat, is unclear. Wong et al. Confounding Variables. In both Model 3 and Model 4, underweight individuals have lower relative risks of type II diabetes compared to the reference category. Women at the lower end of the BMI range — those classified as underweight — are an exception, as they tend to overestimate their weight and their BMI D value is, on average, higher than their BMI C value.

Descriptive characteristics of the sample are presented in Table 1. Obes Res. Medico-Actuarial Mortality Investigation. In these studies healthy years were operationalized in terms of quality-adjusted life years, 20 years without cardiovascular disease 1422 and disability-free years.

Author information

It should be understood that the BMI has serious limitations when used as an indicator of percent of body fat mass. A BMI-determined categorization of an individual should not be used exclusively in counseling or in the design of a treatment regimen. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd.

Mortality among overweight women. Another issue is that the treatment status of the previously mentioned cardiovascular risk factors often nidex unknown or not stated; that is, the efficacy of treatment is rarely considered. Open in a separate window. J Am Coll Nutr. The magnitude of difference between self-reported and clinically measured height, weight and BMI values is smaller for men than for women.

Smoking, physical inactivity and obesity as predictors of healthy and disease-free life expectancy between ages 50 and a multicohort study. Genetic and nongenetic determinants of regional fat distribution. Stat Bull. Statistical analysis.

The total sample included 33 persons. Am J Cardiol. As for the full samples, underweight, low-normal weight, high overweight, and obesity all tended to be associated with higher risk of death relative to high-normal weight. Scand J Public Health ; 36 : —

  • Paired Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to evaluate the differences between mean height, weight and BMI.

  • Mathematically, the issue of adjusting body build for differences in height was approached with the concept that the body, particularly the trunk, could be considered as being a 3-dimensional volume or mass. J Clin Epidemiol.

  • In children the major risk factors for a higher BMI were birth weight, television viewing, maternal smoking in the first year of and eating fast food. Paired Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to evaluate the differences between mean height, weight and BMI.

  • Examining validity of body mass index calculated using height and weight data from the US driver license.

These include waist circumference, waist-to height body mass index google scholarly articles, waist-to-hip ratio, percent body fat, and fasting leptin levels, which may be more useful for predicting adiposity and associated health risks than BMI [ 71011121314151617 ]. Body weight and longevity. Andres in summarized 16 different population-based studies in which anthropometrically determined obesity was not associated with increased mortality rate. Smoking cessation and weight gain. JAMA 20; 3 : —

Body composition, visceral fat, leptin and insulin resistance in Asian Indian men. Discrimination begins in childhood and results in serious emotional scars. Those between the ages of 35 and 44 have the largest difference between average weight D and weight Cunderestimating their weight by 3. Using these cut-off points, we were able to allow for variation in values, while omitting the more extreme differences. PubMed Google Scholar We also established that the variances in the two sets of measures were unequal, with few exceptions. For the women classified as normal weight, overweight and class I obese based on their BMI Dwe can correctly classify

Abstract Background: While many studies have shown associations between obesity and increased risk of morbidity and mortality, little comparable information is available on how body mass index BMI impacts health expectancy. Pediatr Obesity. FlegalKatherine M.

Do the new Metropolitan Life Insurance weight-height tables correctly assess body frame and body fat relationships? Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. These data can be useful to researchers in epidemiological and public health studies. Nutrition Today.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Katherine M. International Union of Nutrition Sciences. On the contrary, a systematic review shows little evidence that childhood obesity is an independent risk factor articles adult blood lipid status, insulin levels, metabolic syndrome, or type 2 diabetes without adjusting for adult BMI [ 20 ]. However, 4 it also should be pointed out they are healthier and are living longer than in any previous period in history. The way in which BMI data are categorized and reported shapes inferences about the degree of risk associated with various BMI categories.

Background

Excessive mortality and causes of death in morbidly obese men. PubMed Article Google Scholar Survival during fasting may depend on fat as well as protein stores. View author publications. Adolphe Quetelet —the average man and indices of obesity.

Articpes extracted the adjusted hazard ratios for each grouping from the published articles. Contract No. Obesity and stroke after cardiac surgery: the impact of grouping body mass index. Measuring adiposity in patients: the utility of body mass index BMIpercent body fat, and leptin. Int J Epidemiol. In contrast, images of obese people, males or females, are never exhibited in ancient Egyptian funerary wall paintings, stellae, or statues suggesting that fatness was not considered to be a desirable trait there.

Article PubMed Google Scholar 2. Abdominal adiposity and coronary heart disease in women. Commentary: understanding the epidemiology of overweight and obesity—a real global public health concern. Excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity. Identification and characterization of metabolically benign obesity in humans. Obesity and efforts to lose weight. Human Nature.

References

It is centered in the to BMI range. Human pattern of food intake and fuel-partitioning during weight recovery after starvation: a theory of autoregulation of body composition. Indeed, in those older than 70 years, there was little impact on the death rate even if they were in the obese category. Collaboration PS.

American Diabetes Association, Screening for type 2 diabetes. In most cases, there were no statistically significant differences between low overweight and high-normal weight. Age changes in fat distribution googls the female body. Paired Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to evaluate the differences between mean height, weight and BMI. At the simplest level the cause of childhood overweight and obesity is an energy imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended. Impact of overweight and obesity on health-related quality of life—a Swedish population study. Mortality among overweight women.

Obes Res. For healthy LE, there were four possible transitions between the health states, namely: healthy to sub-optimal health onsetsub-optimal health to healthy recoveryhealthy to dead, sub-optimal health to dead. Show results from All journals This journal. The health risk increases in a graded fashion when moving from the normal-weight through class III obese BMI categories, 23 and it is assumed that within the normal-weight, overweight, and class I obese BMI categories, patients with high WC values have a greater health risk than patients with normal WC values. Similarly, we can correctly classify Psychosocial factors at work and self reported health: comparative results of cross sectional and prospective analyses of the French GAZEL cohort. To our knowledge, this is the first prospective study to provide health expectancy estimates for both self-rated health and chronic diseases across BMI categories by applying multistate models to longitudinal data to obtain transition probabilities between health states.

NuttallMD, PhD. Table 1. Skip to main content Thank you for visiting nature. Int J Epidemiol. Andres R.

In this regard, it should be recognized that the wcholarly of fat in certain body areas as well as the total amount of fat accumulated has a weight genetic or at least a familial component that diminishes with age. Prior to puberty, boys and girls tend to be lean and not much different in this regard. New weight standards for men and women. The prevalence estimate for men was greater than the estimate of This skewing is not surprising because a markedly reduced BMI, theoretically and actually, would be incompatible with life because of an excessive reduction in lean as well as fat mass as a result of under nutrition 28 or disease. The validity of self-reported weight in US adults: a population based cross-sectional study.

This was considered to be important because most of body fat bodu in the trunk. Article PubMed Google Scholar. It does not measure the body fat directly and hence is an indirect measure of obesity [ 3 ]. With aging, both sexes tend to develop fat in the upper part of the body circumferentiallythat is, the middle-age spread. Only Indices of relative weight and obesity.

Article Google Scholar. This analysis identified many statistically significant associations, although for most the effect sizes were small. Comparable analyses of other health outcomes that are associated with BMI and with data from body mass index google scholarly articles populations can help further validate the value of using driver license data for assessing health risks. Looking for your next opportunity? This was simply chosen as an example to illustrate the effects of varying the reference category when there is a modest curvilinear relationship. Get free access to newly published articles Create a personal account or sign in to: Register for email alerts with links to free full-text articles Access PDFs of free articles Manage your interests Save searches and receive search alerts.

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