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Adiposity rebound reality or epiphenomenon – “Adiposity rebound”: reality or epiphenomenon?

Nierop , Lars Gelander , A.

David Stewart
Monday, December 11, 2017
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  • J Clin Endocrinol Metab.

  • Children differ in the tempo at which they develop and mature to final height, body composition, and adult sexual and emotional maturity 3.

  • Dietz [ 9 ] defined it as "a developmental stage in which physiologic alterations increase the later prevalence of obesity".

  • Whereas reproductive fitness applies mostly to females, sexual selection is challenging for most males.

MeSH terms

Article Google Scholar 18 Hochberg Z. Pediatr Obes14 125 Sep Lancet ; —1. Download citation.

Am J Clin Nutr, 5 Whereas height, BMI, and body composition are readily measureable, maturational tempo is mostly comprehended by assessing skeletal maturity, epiphenomennon the age of occurrence of the pubertal stages, and a complex analysis of height SDS records 3 This finding is consistent with the life-history transitions theory 18the ICT programming for adult height 19and the theories of reproductive strategy Timing of pubertal maturation in girls: an integrated life history approach.

  • Socio-economic status was assessed using the Standard of Living Index SLI estimated based on housing type, utilities and household possessions [ 23 ].

  • Pediatrics, 5 Thank you for visiting nature.

  • Ignore for now the data for older girls. After six years of age, subjects in the early age at AR tertiles had significantly higher BMI than subjects both in the middle and late age at AR tertiles Figure 2.

The percentages of boys and girls were the same og in the full sample. CecilHeidi J. Associations of adiposity rebound reality or epiphenomenon growth and relative weight gain during early life with adult health and human capital in countries of low and middle income: findings from five birth cohort studies. Dietz for example has termed it an epiphenomenon [ 9 ]. The concept of centile crossing is usually applied to weight rather than BMI, though the two are obviously structurally related.

Infant attachment security and the timing of puberty: testing an evolutionary hypothesis. Determinants of Adiposity Rebound Timing in Children. Recent Activity. Comparing BMI with skinfolds to estimate age at adiposity rebound and its associations with cardio-metabolic risk markers in adolescence. Dietz WH 1.

The role of adiposity treatment progression of the pubertal process has been previously reported as reviewed 1. Main The physiological variation in the age at the onset of puberty can be 4—5 y in normal children whose life conditions are comparable and greater in children whose life conditions vary 1. Download references. Despite substantial heritability in pubertal development 2children differ in their maturational tempos 3and this difference generates plasticity in their phenotypic trajectories so that they can adapt to their specific environment 45. Hum Biol ; 33 —

View 1 excerpt, cites background. We are grateful to the participating families, the director, and the obstetric and paediatric consultants of HMH. This is the "horse racing effect". In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Br J Radiol —

Discussion This study showed that BMI and skinfolds have different growth patterns. The main strengths with the present reboound are the detailed growth charts, enabling calculations of age at AR and PHV, and the thorough fat phenotyping performed, including DXA and both peripheral and abdominal CT measurements. Dietz WH: "Adiposity rebound": reality or epiphenomenon?. The aim of this study is to relate the age at adiposity rebound to the corresponding pattern of BMI centile change, to see whether the adiposity rebound's prediction of later fatness makes it a critical period of growth.

  • Dietz WH: The obesity epidemic in young children — Reduce television viewing and promote playing.

  • Abstract Available from publisher site using DOI. Pluess M, Belsky J.

  • Influence of macronutrients on adiposity development: a follow up study of nutrition and growth from 10 months to 8 years of age. Since the present study is retrospective with respect to childhood data, fat mass during adolescence has not been measured.

Of importance is the fact that when the analyses to be reported were run in comparison with complete data, results were not appreciably different Advanced search. Hochberg Z, Belsky J. We epipheomenon found that adiposity rebound reality or epiphenomenon thelarche and menarche in children with an adipose rebound and the ages at which thelarche and menarche occurred correlated positively with the age of occurrence of the rebound. It is the female who needs to exploit any selection advantage in order to extend her fecund period through early maturation, which requires a secure energy supply and has currently reached historically unrecorded levels in industrial societies 4. Abstract Background: Despite substantial heritability in pubertal development, children differ in maturational tempo.

Values are given as means. Table S1. Full size image. For example on the British girls chart [ 11 ] the age at rebound is 5. With the exception of height, lean mass and age at PHV, none of the dependent variables displayed normal distribution.

Background

Download citation. Whereas height, BMI, and body composition reobund readily measureable, maturational tempo is mostly comprehended by assessing skeletal maturity, recording the age of occurrence of the pubertal stages, and a complex analysis of height SDS records 3 Comparing BMI with skinfolds to estimate age at adiposity rebound and its associations with cardio-metabolic risk markers in adolescence.

  • View Article Google Scholar 5. In the present retrospective cohort study, the GOOD study, male subjects aged 18—20 were enrolled [11][12].

  • Pediatrics ; — Reprints and Permissions.

  • Long-term changes in body weight, BMI, and adiposity rebound among children and adolescents in the Czech republic.

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Linear growth and fat and lean tissue gain during childhood: associations with adipositu and cognitive outcomes epiphenomenon adolescent Indian Children. Cohort Profile: Mysore parthenon birth cohort. Moreover, girls with early age at AR have earlier menarche [6]but whether or not age at AR is associated with pubertal timing in boys is not known. Acknowledgements We are grateful to the participating families, the director, and the obstetric and paediatric consultants of HMH. Stat Med 6: — Previous studies have indicated an association between waist circumference at adult age and age at AR [9] and an inverse association between age at AR and subscapular skinfold thickness in adult age [4]indicating an association between timing of AR and indirect measurements of fat mass. Debate Open Access Published: 12 March Children grow and horses race: is the adiposity rebound a critical period for later obesity?

Subjects Paediatric research. In boys, gonadarche occurred at Pediatrics adiposity rebound reality or epiphenomenon — Interestingly, epiiphenomenon BMI was shown to be inversely correlated with the AR in offspring 22a finding which suggests transgenerational imprinting of reproductive strategy by environmental or nutritional cues. Our finding of the existence of a temporal relationship between height at the ICT and the AR suggests that rebound might be programmed, at least in part, during ICT, in agreement with the ICT theory 518 ,

MeSH terms

Received : 24 October Such children are likely to have a raised body mass index later. This is an example of Peto's "horse racing effect".

  • Socio-economic status was assessed using the Standard of Living Index SLI estimated based on housing type, utilities and household possessions [ 23 ]. Similar significant interactions of sex with age at AR were observed results not shown.

  • Main The physiological variation in the age at the onset of puberty can be 4—5 y in normal children whose life conditions are comparable and greater in children whose life conditions vary 1. J Pediatr ; —6.

  • An introduction to the bootstrap. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field.

  • Published : 07 July

  • We used longitudinal skinfold measures to characterise adiposity. Reprints and Permissions.

  • Rigby R, Stasinopoulos D.

Pediatr Obes14 125 Sep PLoS One ; 4 :e Timing of pubertal maturation in girls: an integrated life history approach. Figure 1. The physiology and biochemistry of adrenarche. Age at puberty and the emerging obesity epidemic.

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Epiphenomenon influence of socioeconomic status, diet, exercise, prepubertal fat and body weight, chronic illness, and stress on the age of the onset of puberty is well documented 1. Here, epiphenomwnon present even earlier and sexually dimorphic predictive values for puberty age of height, BMI, and the AR. Long-term changes in body weight, BMI, and adiposity rebound among children and adolescents in the Czech Republic. Predicting BMI in young adults from childhood data using two approaches to modelling adiposity rebound. Early adiposity rebound in childhood and risk of type 2 diabetes in adult life. To this end, we examined pubertal variability by assessing the effects of height, BMI, and AR at specific ages on the timing and duration of puberty. WareLisa K.

To our knowledge, no studies in LMICs have investigated whether the BMI-derived AR corresponds to a rebound epiphdnomenon adiposity and compared their associations with later obesity and cardio-metabolic risk markers. Objective We madarosis to assess whether AR corresponds to a rebound in skinfolds, and compare associations of BMI-derived AR and skinfold-derived AR with cardio-metabolic risk markers in adolescence. The concept of centile crossing is usually applied to weight rather than BMI, though the two are obviously structurally related. Figure 3 confirms this centile crossing interpretation. Conclusion A rebound in adiposity as measured by skinfolds was detected in the majority of children.

Introduction

Eur J Clin Nutr67 917 Jul Subjects Paediatric research. Predicting pubertal development by infantile and childhood height, BMI, and adiposity rebound. Eur J Endocrinol ; — Early adiposity rebound and the risk of adult obesity Whitaker Pediatrics

PowerPoint slide. Pediatric Research SDS, standard deviation scores. In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page. Int J Pediatr Endocrinol ;

  • Article Google Scholar. Citation Type.

  • Abstract Available from publisher site using DOI.

  • View Article Google Scholar 4. The early age at AR tertile had an increased risk of obesity Odds Ratio 4.

  • Oxford, England: Blackwell Scientific Publications;

  • The horse's position early in the race becomes irrelevant once its position later in the race is known. The analyses were performed using R V.

Smoothing reference centile curves: The lms method and penalized likelihood. Identifying the determinants of adiposity rebound reality or epiphenomenon early age at AR is the next essential step in understanding how to prevent later obesity and related disorders. Int J Obes. BMI and skinfolds had different growth patterns. Figure 3. Article Google Scholar 2.

All study procedures were approved at the institutional reviews boards of each site, as previously reported 11and parental informed consent was obtained for all participants. The pubertal deality reality epiphenomenon each child was determined annually by a physical examination which included Tanner staging, and the age of occurrence of each Tanner stage was recorded Download citation. A young age and a high BMI at the age of rebound predicts a high BMI in early adulthood, and it has been suggested that the occurrence of a high BMI at 3 y of age leads to a rebound at a younger age Endocrine

Yearbook of Adiposiry Anthropology. Bootstrap allows the derivation of the standard error and confidence interval for any estimator without making any assumptions about its distribution [ 28 ]. Correlations among adiposity measures in school-aged children. The associations were independent of BMI at time of rebound, but were fully explained by fat mass at

Since the present study is retrospective with respect to childhood data, fat mass during adolescence has not been measured. Age at AR was identified using differentiation of the BMI and skinfold growth curves between 2 and 10 years of age. Skip to main content Thank you for visiting nature. In the present study we show, for the first time, an association between early age at AR and an early puberty in men. Discussion This study showed that BMI and skinfolds have different growth patterns.

Public Health. Concerns madarosis in hypothyroidism treatment therefore eplphenomenon raised about the lack of evidence linking an early age at AR to adult fat mass [20] and some critics have argued that age at AR is an epiphenomenon only seen using population statistics with little use in individuals [20]. Body composition was analysed using dual X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography at 18—20 years of age. Linear growth and fat and lean tissue gain during childhood: associations with cardiometabolic and cognitive outcomes in adolescent Indian Children. Conclusions Early age at AR was associated with young adult obesity as a consequence of a high amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue in men. Annals of Human Biology.

The early AR tertile age at AR before 5. Research Feed. Such children are likely to have a raised BMI later in childhood and adulthood. BMC Pediatr 4, 6 This underlines the difficulty of estimating the age at rebound accurately in individual cases, particularly when measurement error is present.

  • In a study including addiposity followed subjects from New Madarosis in hypothyroidism treatment, subjects with early age at AR had larger waist circumference at adult age [9] than subjects with middle or late age at AR, and in the Bogalusa Heart study age at AR was inversely associated with subscapular skinfold thickness [4]. An introduction to the bootstrap.

  • Statement of Financial Support No financial assistance was received in support of the study.

  • The main limitation with the present study is that findings from association studies cannot establish any causal relationships and interpretations should therefore be made with caution.

Does the age at adiposity rebound reflect adiposity rebound reality or epiphenomenon critical period? Our results e;iphenomenon that length is the first predictor of pace pubertal process, the onset and duration of puberty both thelarche and pubarche. Abstract No abstract provided. Ellis BJ. Measurement and pubertal stage assessment were performed by the study network researchers.

This website requires cookies, and the limited processing of your epiphenomenin data in order to function. Hochberg Z, Albertsson-Wikland K. Predicting pubertal development by infantile and childhood height, BMI, and adiposity rebound. A late puberty, which would indicate later reproductive life 17allows for a longer period of adolescent weight gain, as evident in underprivileged girls in developing countries 1. PowerPoint slides. The taller a boy is at the age of 36 mo the earlier he will enter puberty. Smart citations by scite.

Evolutionary fitness as a function of pubertal age in 22 subsistence-based traditional societies. Early growth, menarche, and adiposity rebound. Differential susceptibility to parenting and quality child care. The influence of socioeconomic status, diet, exercise, prepubertal fat and body weight, chronic illness, and stress on the age of the onset of puberty is well documented 1. J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 89 — Endocr Rev ; 24 —

Download PDF. View Article Google Scholar 7. Additional information Competing interests I have no competing interests. We then investigated if age at AR was associated with young adult adipose tissue depots as measured with abdominal CT.

Inclusion criteria were aiposity 18—20, male sex and willing to participate. Int J Pediatr Obes. Upward BMI centile crossing at rebound and other ages in childhood predicts later obesity. Highly Influenced. Article PubMed Google Scholar. View Article Google Scholar 8. Comparison of methods to measure body fat in 7-toyear-old children: a systematic review.

Int J Obes Londadiposigy 413 Jul Received : 23 November The influence of socioeconomic status, diet, exercise, prepubertal fat and body weight, chronic illness, and stress on the age of the onset of puberty is well documented 1. We investigated the age of pubarche-thelarche- gonadarche -menarche as a function of early height, BMI, and AR. The adiposity rebound in the 21st century children: meaning for what?

PowerPoint slide for Fig. Early adiposity rebound is an important predictor of later obesity. Skip to main content Thank you for visiting nature. Int J Obesity Download PDF.

Adipoxity additive models for location, scale and shape with e;iphenomenon. In the present study, we used longitudinal height, weight and skinfold measures from a prospective cohort of children living in Mysore, India, to examine 1 whether there is a rebound in skinfold thickness, a direct measure of adiposity, 2 if so, whether it corresponds in timing to the BMI-derived AR and 3 how it compares with BMI-derived AR in its associations with obesity and cardio-metabolic risk markers measured at Briefly, penalised splines are piecewise polynomial curves connected at user-defined points knotssubject to penalties ensuring smoothness, that model the relationship between variables without imposing any assumption on the trend e. Tanner J. Pediatric growth charts with longitudinal measurements of height and weight were collected retrospectively for the subjects of the GOOD study. BuckleyKim M. To explore whether or not age at AR predicts young adult fat mass, we performed linear regression analyses.

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Related Papers. Skip to realitu content. About this article Cite this article Cole, T. This implies that the period leading up to rebound is a critical period [ 7 ] when children "choose" a trajectory of static, rising or falling centile which predicts both their age and BMI centile at rebound. And upward centile crossing predicts later obesity at whatever age it occurs, not just at rebound — the period is not bounded.

The timing of normal puberty and the age limits of sexual precocity: variations around the world, secular trends, and changes after migration. Despite substantial heritability in pubertal development, children differ in maturational tempo. The second hit occurs at the childhood—juvenility transition 5—7 y and is based on adiposity and its rebound. Cited by: 3 articles PMID:

Article Google Scholar. The physiological variation in the age at the onset of puberty can be 4—5 y in normal children whose life conditions are comparable and greater in children whose life conditions vary 1. View author publications. Early adiposity rebound in childhood and risk of type 2 diabetes in adult life.

Int J Obesity No associations between age at pubertal onset and simultaneous body composition were found Arch Dis Child ; 93 —9. We investigated the age of pubarche-thelarche- gonadarche -menarche as a function of early height, BMI, and AR. Whereas height, BMI, and body composition are readily measureable, maturational tempo is mostly comprehended by assessing skeletal maturity, recording the age of occurrence of the pubertal stages, and a complex analysis of height SDS records 3 We have previously suggested that the AR and adrenarche are some of the manifestations of the childhood—juvenility transition

Cited by: 98 articles PMID: Explore citation contexts and check if this article has been supported or disputed. The first is exerted during the infancy—childhood transition ICT; 6—12 mo and includes height, as an early predictor of maturational geality. A young age and a high BMI at the age of rebound predicts a high BMI in early adulthood, and it has been suggested that the occurrence of a high BMI at 3 y of age leads to a rebound at a younger age For this purpose, we utilized the anthropological measurements and pubertal staging data from American children of families that were recruited at 1 y of age in and followed up prospectively until The correlation strength did not changed with age and was smaller than that of the equivalent correlation strength in the girls. Ann Human Biol

As much as reality epiphenomenon secular trend in human size is an adaptive response to a nutritionally rich environment, the receding age of pubertal development is an adaptive response to a positive energy balance. Free to read. Skip to main content Thank you for visiting nature. Childhood obesity: rapid weight gain in early childhood and subsequent cardiometabolic risk. Early adiposity rebound is an important predictor of later obesity.

Correspondence to Chiara Di Gravio. Comparing BMI with skinfolds to estimate age at adiposity rebound and its associations with cardio-metabolic risk markers in adolescence. Similar associations, in both direction and magnitude, were observed when considering skinfold-derived AR Table 2.

To this end, we examined pubertal variability by assessing the effects of height, BMI, and AR at specific ages on the timing and duration of puberty. Adiposity development and prediction during growth in humans: a two decade follow-up study Rolland-Cachwera Article Google Scholar Download references. Do we fatten our children at the television set? In boys, age at gonadarche correlated negatively with height from 36 mo of age.

For every year of earlier age at AR, young adult fat mass was 1. Diabetes — Correspondence to Chiara Di Gravio. Our adiposity rebound reality or epiphenomenon indicate that age at AR is a negative predictor of not only young adult BMI but also of whole body fat mass, trunk fat mass, peripheral fat mass and serum leptin levels in a large population-based cohort of young adult Swedish males independent of BMI at AR. Show results from All journals This journal. Table S1.

Indicators of fat mass derived from anthropometric measurements, such as skinfold thickness and waist circumference, cannot separate subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. British Medical Journal. Smoothing reference centile curves: The lms method and penalized likelihood.

International Journal of Obesity. Restricting access to palatable foods affects children's behavioral response, food selection, and intake. More Filters. Browse Subject Areas?

Similarly to findings in Western populations, these associations were independent of BMI at time of rebound rality 10 ]. Int J Obes. Detailed information on the cohort has been published elsewhere [ 19 ]. This is an example of Peto's "horse racing effect",[ 16 ] where childhood is a horse race and race position corresponds to BMI rank. The adiposity rebound in the 21st century children: meaning for what? Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. This study showed that BMI and skinfolds have different growth patterns.

The reason is readily apparent — for A and B the background centile curves are falling with time, for D and E they are rising, and for C they are effectively flat. A sensitivity analysis, including only children with complete measures of BMI and skinfolds, showed that estimates of AR were not affected by missing values. But is it correct to call them critical periods — what exactly is a critical period? Eur J Clin Nutr. Each subject's outer two BMI values are the same yet their centiles differ.

By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree to the adiposity rebound reality or epiphenomenon pr in our Privacy PolicyTerms of Serviceand Dataset License. The association of the timing of rebound with centile crossing arises simply from the curved BMI centile shape at rebound — the centile curves fall before rebound and rise afterwards. References 1.

Strengths and limitations The availability of frequently and prospectively collected anthropometry constitutes a major strength of the study. Discussion Our results indicate that age at AR is a negative predictor of not only young adult BMI but also of whole body fat mass, trunk fat mass, peripheral fat mass and serum leptin levels in a large population-based cohort of young adult Swedish males independent of BMI at AR. Introduction Cardiovascular disease CVD is the primary cause of death in Indian adults, with age-standardised death rate of Interestingly, there was no significant association between timing of AR and visceral fat mass. The association of the timing of rebound with centile crossing arises simply from the curved BMI centile shape at rebound — the centile curves fall before rebound and rise afterwards. Partial replacement of saturated fatty acids with almonds or walnuts lowers total plasma cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field.

Figure 2. Infant attachment security and the timing of puberty: testing an evolutionary hypothesis. Reprints and Permissions. Tracking the development of adiposity from one month of age to adulthood Rolland-Cachera Ann Human Biol Am J Clin Nutr, 5

In addition, our aiposity indicate that subjects with early age at AR have the highest amounts of body fat in young adult age. Epiphenomenon are grateful to the participating families, the director, and the obstetric and paediatric consultants of HMH. This implies that the period leading up to rebound is a critical period [ 7 ] when children "choose" a trajectory of static, rising or falling centile which predicts both their age and BMI centile at rebound. Citation Type.

PLoS One. Eur J Clin Nutr. Methods Citations. Childhood BMI was then calculated from the estimated values of weight and height.

No significant difference was demonstrated between the groups in pubertal progression from B2 to menarche 2. The current analysis was made using data from girls and boys, who started the study in Interestingly, parental BMI was shown to be inversely correlated with the AR in offspring 22a finding which suggests transgenerational imprinting of reproductive strategy by environmental or nutritional cues. A late puberty, which would indicate later reproductive life 17allows for a longer period of adolescent weight gain, as evident in underprivileged girls in developing countries 1.

Partial replacement of saturated fatty acids with almonds or walnuts lowers total plasma cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. Dietz WH: "Adiposity rebound": reality or epiphenomenon?. View Article Google Scholar The aim here is to clarify the rrbound between the age at rebound and the corresponding pattern of body mass index change, in centile terms, so as to better understand its ability to predict later fatness. Discussion Our results indicate that age at AR is a negative predictor of not only young adult BMI but also of whole body fat mass, trunk fat mass, peripheral fat mass and serum leptin levels in a large population-based cohort of young adult Swedish males independent of BMI at AR.

  • Methods We used penalised splines with random coefficients to estimate BMI and skinfold trajectories of children from the Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort.

  • Its correlation with age at the onset of puberty and menarche places the AR as a marker, or even a mechanistic factor, which controls the maturational tempo.

  • Using abdominal CT analyses we have studied the role of age at AR for the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue separately. Article Google Scholar.

  • Children grow and horses race: is the adiposity rebound a critical period for later obesity? Firstly, BMI includes both fat and lean mass.

  • The age that height and gonadarche age correlates stronger is 36 mo. Pubertal maturation in girls and the relationship to anthropometric changes: pathways through puberty.

We have previously suggested that the AR and adrenarche are some of the manifestations of the childhood—juvenility transition Infant attachment aiposity and the timing of puberty: testing an evolutionary hypothesis. The second hit occurs at the childhood—juvenility transition 5—7 y and is based on adiposity and its rebound. J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 89 — Article Google Scholar Download references. Hochberg Z.

Our results indicate that length adiposiyt the adiposity rebound reality or epiphenomenon predictor of pace pubertal process, the onset and duration of puberty both thelarche and pubarche. Figure 3. Full text links Read article at publisher's site DOI : Dev Psychol ; 46 —8. Table 1 Tanner stages of pubertal development in girls and boys for whom a full set of data was available for analysis Full size table. A subscription may be required.

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