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Hypothyroidism references in apa:

The title should be centered and written in boldface. Common Reasons for Abnormal TSH Levels on a Previously Stable Dosage of Thyroid Hormone Patient nonadherent to thyroid hormone regimen missing doses Decreased absorption of thyroid hormone Patient is now taking thyroid hormone with food Patient takes thyroid hormone within four hours of calcium, iron, soy products, or aluminum-containing antacids Patient is prescribed medication that decreases absorption of thyroid hormone, such as cholestyramine Questran , colestipol Colestid , orlistat Xenical , or sucralfate Carafate Patient is now pregnant or recently started or stopped estrogen-containing oral contraceptive or hormone therapy Generic substitution for brand name or vice versa, or substitution of one generic formulation for another 25 Patient started on sertraline Zoloft , another selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, or a tricyclic antidepressant 31 Patient started on carbamazepine Tegretol or phenytoin Dilantin note : Reasons are sorted by the clinically most important cause.

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Sunday, September 10, 2017
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  • Selenium and iodine intakes and status in New Zealand and Australia. Individuals and populations ingesting inadequate amounts of iodine appear to be particularly at risk, as are patients with autoimmune diseases.

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  • The C cells are interspersed throughout the thyroid gland, although their density is greatest in the juncture of the upper one-third and lower two-thirds of the gland. Disorders of the thyroid gland.

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Forgot your username or password? Although T 4 is produced in greater amounts, T 3 is the biologically active form. Because clinical presentation is highly variable, diagnosis relies on laboratory testing. Although Western, meat-eating populations have greater iron stores than non-Western populations, some individuals may experience poor iron status. Murtagh Collection.

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Password Error: Please enter Password. Childhood obesity at the crossroads. Iatrogenic: I treatment, subtotal or total thyroidectomy, external irradiation apa neck for lymphoma or cancer. Overexpression of type 3 deiodinase in infantile hemangioma and other tumors. Is there a relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in childhood obesity? Learn More. It may be transient, especially if the mother has TSH-R blocking antibodies or has received antithyroid drugs, but permanent hypothyroidism occurs in the majority.

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  • An approach for development of age- gender- and ethnicity-specific thyrotropin reference limits. Drugs classically associated with thyroid dysfunction include lithium, amiodarone, interferon alfa, interleukin-2, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

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Management of hypothyroidism secondary to tyrosine kinase inhibitors: description of treatment in three distinct clinical settings [in Spanish]. Transplacental passage of maternal thyroid hormone occurs before the fetal thyroid gland begins to function and provides partial hormone support to a fetus with congenital hypothyroidism. Older patients; patients with known or suspected cardiac disease. Click here to start building your own bibliography. Dosage should be adjusted based on clinical response and laboratory parameters. This content is owned by the AAFP.

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Clin Chim Acta. Your essay should be typed and double-spaced on standard-sized paper 8. The thyroid gland.

Confirm Cancel. You currently have no access to view or download this content. Disorders of the thyroid gland. A guideline is not intended to take the place of physician judgment in diagnosing and treatment of particular patients. One or more of your email addresses are invalid.

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  • Abstract Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as serum levels of TSH above the upper limit of the reference range, in the presence of normal concentrations of total T 4 or free T 4.

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  • The recurrent laryngeal nerves traverse the lateral borders of the thyroid gland and must be identified during thyroid surgery to avoid injury and vocal cord paralysis.

Preventive Services Task Force found insufficient evidence for routine screening in this population. Search terms included regerences, thyroid dysfunction, subclinical hypothyroidism, screening, symptoms, prevalence and symptoms, clinical presentation, manifestations, levothyroxine, triiodothyronine, epidemiology, thyroid and pregnancy, clinical guidelines, treatment, deiodinase, and clinical presentation. N Engl J Med. Beneath the author's name, type the institutional affiliationwhich should indicate the location where the author s conducted the research. Patient is prescribed medication that decreases absorption of thyroid hormone, such as cholestyramine Questrancolestipol Colestidorlistat Xenicalor sucralfate Carafate.

Clinical Sports Medicine Collection. Insulin secretion response during oral glucose tolerance test is related refrences low cardiorespiratory fitness in obese adolescents. Rosenthal, Angelos, et al. About MyAccess If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Combined pituitary hormone deficiencies with preservation of adrenocorticotropic hormone. Satoh, M. You currently have no access to view or download this content.

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Please Wait. Wartofsky L. Some patients may have an alternative cause for their symptoms; in these patients, a limited laboratory and clinical investigation is reasonable Table 4. However, in a prospective study of patients older than 55 years, an initial TSH level greater than 10 to 15 mIU per L was the variable most strongly associated with progression to overt hypothyroidism. Iatrogenic: I treatment, subtotal or total thyroidectomy, external irradiation of neck for lymphoma or cancer.

Your MyAccess profile hypothyroidism references in apa currently affiliated with '[InstitutionA]' and is in the process of switching hypothyroidis, to '[InstitutionB]'. You have successfully created a MyAccess Profile for alertsuccessName. Greenspan's Basic and Clinical Endocrinology. An approach for development of age- gender- and ethnicity-specific thyrotropin reference limits. However, in a prospective study of patients older than 55 years, an initial TSH level greater than 10 to 15 mIU per L was the variable most strongly associated with progression to overt hypothyroidism.

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Eisenhower Army Medical Center, W. Among patients with subclinical hypothyroidism, those at greater risk yhpothyroidism progressing to clinical disease, and who may be considered for therapy, include patients with thyroid-stimulating hormone levels greater than 10 mIU per L and those who have elevated thyroid peroxidase antibody titers. J Endocrinol. New to Nutrition Guide for Clinicians?

Otherwise it is hidden from view. Case Files Collection. McGraw Hill. ATA Guidelines Disclaimer The American Thyroid Association develops Clinical Practice Guidelines to provide guidance and recommendations for particular practice areas concerning thyroid disease and thyroid cancer. See more

Best Value! The disease may reflect intrinsic thyroid dysfunction primary hypothyroidismor it may result from insufficient stimulation of the thyroid gland by thyroid-stimulating hormone TSH due to a malfunction in the pituitary secondary hypothyroidism or hypothalamus tertiary hypothyroidism. As a thank-you for using our site, here's a discounted rate for renewal or upgrade. A small number of patients with hypothyroidism, mostly women, treated with an adequate dose of levothyroxine will report persistent symptoms such as fatigue, depressed mood, and weight gain despite having a TSH level in the lower half of the normal range. Viral infection e.

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The reliability of body mass index in hypothyroidism references in apa diagnosis of obesity and metabolic risk in children. Autoimmune disorders of the thyroid gland can stimulate overproduction of thyroid hormones thyrotoxicosis or cause glandular destruction and hormone deficiency hypothyroidism. An error has occurred sending your email s. A guideline is not intended to take the place of physician judgment in diagnosing and treatment of particular patients. Murtagh Collection.

Recommendations for thyroid apaa. Older patients; patients with known or suspected cardiac disease. Enter your email below and we'll resend your username to you. Corticosteroids may also be needed. Myxedema coma is a rare, life-threatening complication of severe hypothyroidism manifested by mental status changes, often accompanied by hypotension, hypothermia, hypoventilation, and rarely, coma. The third paragraph should include any disclosures or acknowledgements, such as study registration, open practices and data sharing, disclosure of related reports and conflicts of interest, and acknowledgement of financial support and other assistance.

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Jameson, J. Iatrogenic: I treatment, subtotal or total thyroidectomy, external irradiation of neck for lymphoma or cancer. The recurrent laryngeal nerves traverse the lateral borders of the thyroid gland and must be identified during thyroid surgery to avoid injury and vocal cord paralysis.

Best Value! Common electrocardiography findings include bradycardia, flattened T waves, and low voltage. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style can be found here. Enable Autosuggest.

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Citation Barnard, Neal D. Search dates: June 6, ala, through February 3, Patient takes thyroid hormone within four hours of calcium, iron, soy products, or aluminum-containing antacids. As a thank-you for using our site, here's a discounted rate for renewal or upgrade. Thyroid-stimulating hormone testing should be used to diagnose primary hypothyroidism. Subclinical thyroid disease: scientific review and guidelines for diagnosis and management.

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Autosomal recessive Autosomal dominant. J Endocrinol. Central causes of hypothyroidism typically present with other manifestations of hypothalamic or pituitary dysfunction, and are characterized by inappropriately normal or low levels of TSH relative to insufficient thyroid hormone. LORI B. These include malnutrition, chronic illness, severe acute illness, drugs, and pregnancy.

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The thyroid gland produces two related hormones, thyroxine T 4 and triiodothyronine T 3 Fig. You have successfully created a MyAccess Profile for alertsuccessName. Your email has been sent to: The recipient s will receive an email message that includes a link to the selected article. AccessEmergency Medicine. AccessBiomedical Science.

The best laboratory assessment of thyroid function, and the preferred test for diagnosing primary hypothyroidism, is a serum TSH test. Murtagh Collection. Larry, et al. Patient takes thyroid hormone within four hours of calcium, iron, soy products, or aluminum-containing antacids. Symptoms with high specificity for hypothyroidism include constipation, cold intolerance, dry skin, proximal muscle weakness, and hair thinning or loss. Hypothyroidism is defined as failure of the thyroid gland to produce sufficient thyroid hormone to meet the metabolic demands of the body. Your Bibliography: Better Health Channel.

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  • The starting dose of levothyroxine in primary hypothyroidism treatment: a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial.

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Otherwise it is hypothyroidism references in apa jn view. However, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, the Endocrine Society, and the American Thyroid Association disagreed with the FDA's conclusion that generic preparations were bioequivalent to brand-name levothyroxine. Recommendations for thyroid screening. Clinical Sports Medicine Collection. Title page for a professional paper paper in APA 7 style.

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Childhood obesity at the crossroads. Jameson, J. Withdrawal of supraphysiologic thyroxine treatment in individuals with an intact thyroid. Larry, et al.

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Already have an account? Selenium and iodine intakes and status in New Zealand and Australia. Patient started on sertraline Zoloftanother selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, or a tricyclic antidepressant The increase in thyroid hormone requirement lasts throughout pregnancy.

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  • It is recommended that women on fixed doses of levothyroxine take nine doses each week one extra dose on two days of the weekinstead of the usual seven, as soon as pregnancy is confirmed.

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  • Among patients with subclinical hypothyroidism, those at greater risk of progressing to clinical disease, and who may be considered for therapy, include patients with thyroid-stimulating hormone levels greater than 10 mIU per L and those who have elevated thyroid peroxidase antibody titers. American Academy of Family Physicians.

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The use of iodized salt is a well-accepted public health strategy for decreasing the referenced of iodine deficiency disorders. Accessed Hypothyroidism references in apa 1,with additional information from references 14 and Helfand M; U. The majority of cases occur in women, particularly women who are small at birth and remain small throughout childhood. Contributors' names. Algorithm for evaluating suspected hypothyroidism. Forgot your username or password?

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Treatment with levothyroxine should be apz for patients with initial TSH levels greater than 10 mIU per L, patients with elevated thyroid peroxidase antibody titers, patients with symptoms suggestive of hypothyroidism and TSH levels between 5 and 10 mIU per L, and for patients who are pregnant or are attempting to conceive. Table 5. Hypothyroidism: An Update. Jameson, J.

  • Iatrogenic: I treatment, subtotal or total thyroidectomy, external irradiation of neck for lymphoma or cancer. The Guidelines do not establish a standard of care and specific outcomes are not guaranteed.

  • Rapid regulation of thyroid sodium-iodide symporter activity by thyrotrophin and iodine.

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  • Hypothyroidism is defined as failure of the thyroid gland to produce sufficient thyroid hormone to meet the metabolic demands of the body.

  • The disease may reflect intrinsic thyroid dysfunction primary hypothyroidismor it may result from insufficient stimulation of the thyroid gland by thyroid-stimulating hormone TSH due to a malfunction in the pituitary secondary hypothyroidism or hypothalamus tertiary hypothyroidism.

Neural crest derivatives from the ultimobranchial body referdnces rise to thyroid medullary C cells that produce calcitonin, a calcium-lowering hormone. McGraw Hill; Hypothyroidism references in apa August 03, View Table Download. If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. View Table Download. Password Error: Please enter Password.

Your free 1 year of online access expired. With medical monitoring, apa may adopt a low-fat plant-based diet to see whether weight loss and a qualitative diet change lead to an improvement in thyroid status, recognizing that no randomized trial has yet tested this possibility. In-text: Hypothyroidism, Your Bibliography: Niddk. N Engl J Med. Your Bibliography: Mayo Clin Proc.

Sign in via Shibboleth. This field is required. Neural crest derivatives from the ultimobranchial body give hypothyroidism references in apa to thyroid medullary C cells that produce calcitonin, a calcium-lowering hormone. The recurrent laryngeal nerves traverse the lateral borders of the thyroid gland and must be identified during thyroid surgery to avoid injury and vocal cord paralysis. Calcitonin plays a minimal role in calcium homeostasis in humans but the C-cells are important because of their involvement in medullary thyroid cancer. Insulin secretion response during oral glucose tolerance test is related to low cardiorespiratory fitness in obese adolescents.

Read the full article. Log in to Nutrition Guide for Clinicians. It is recommended that women on fixed doses of levothyroxine take nine doses each week one extra dose on two days of the weekinstead of the usual seven, as soon as pregnancy is confirmed. Accessed January 12, Food and Drug Administration FDA approved the substitution of generic levothyroxine for brand-name levothyroxine.

Otherwise endocrine society guidelines hypothyroidism symptoms is hidden from view. Hypothyroidism rederences in about 1 in newborns and neonatal screening is performed in most industrialized countries. Structures of thyroid hormones. The thyroid gland produces two related hormones, thyroxine T 4 and triiodothyronine T 3 Fig. An error has occurred sending your email s. Send Another Email.

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Disclaimer: None of the information posted is intended as medical, hypothyroidism references in apa, or business advice, or advice about reimbursement for health care services. Autoimmune disorders of the thyroid gland can stimulate overproduction of thyroid hormones thyrotoxicosis or cause glandular destruction and hormone deficiency hypothyroidism. An error has occurred sending your email s. Sign in via OpenAthens. Subscribe: Institutional or Individual.

The measurement of free thyroxine by isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. Furthermore, genetic testing for a type 2 deiodinase polymorphism is not practical. A student paper should not include an author note. Crit Care.

Central causes of hypothyroidism typically present with other manifestations of hypothalamic or pituitary dysfunction, and are characterized by inappropriately normal or low levels of TSH relative to insufficient thyroid hormone. This content is owned by the AAFP. AccessBiomedical Science. You have successfully created a MyAccess Profile for alertsuccessName. LORI B.

Hypothyroidism occurs apa about 1 in newborns and neonatal screening is performed in hypotyyroidism industrialized countries. Note: APA 7 provides slightly different directions for formatting the title pages of professional papers e. Because myxedema coma is a medical emergency with a high mortality rate, even with appropriate treatment, patients should be managed in the intensive care unit where proper ventilatory, electrolyte, and hemodynamic support can be given.

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Already have an account? Pleural and pericardial effusion. N Engl J Med. Increased understanding of the early metabolic risk factors associated with subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood will help to improve the management of affected individuals.

Patients who do switch products should undergo repeat TSH and free T 4 testing in six weeks to ensure normal range levels. Table 4. Beginning with the next line, write a concise summary of the key points of your research. Purdue Online Writing Lab.

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However, select pages still include this information. Hypothyroidism occurs in about 1 in newborns and neonatal screening is performed in most industrialized countries. Recommendations for thyroid screening.

Referencees email has been hypothyroidism references in apa to: The recipient s will receive an email message that includes a link to the selected article. The developmental abnormalities are twice as common in girls. Forgot Username? Withdrawal of supraphysiologic thyroxine treatment in individuals with an intact thyroid. Rosenthal, Angelos, et al. Return to:. Congenital hypothyroidism: absent or ectopic thyroid gland, dyshormonogenesis, TSH-R mutation.

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Search dates: June 6,hypothyroidism references in apa February 3, While the APA Manual does not specify a single font or set of fonts for professional writing, it does recommend a few fonts that are widely available. As a thank-you for using our site, here's a discounted rate for renewal or upgrade. Title Page Note: APA 7 provides slightly different directions for formatting the title pages of professional papers e. The clinical presentation of a goiter depends on its size and location, and enlargement can be symmetric or asymmetric.

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Accessed February 1,with additional information from references 14 and Address correspondence to David Y. Navigate this Article. These include malnutrition, chronic illness, severe acute illness, drugs, and pregnancy. Adult hypothyroidism. However, ongoing scientific investigations have highlighted the presence of subtle proatherogenic abnormalities among children with modest elevations in their TSH levels.

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Do not use titles Dr. Rrferences thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentrations were significantly lower in women with iron-deficiency anemia, hypothyroidism references in apa with controls. Next Chapter. C 12 Older patients and patients with known or suspected ischemic heart disease should be started on 25 to 50 mcg of levothyroxine daily, rather than the full replacement dosage, because of the potential risk of tachyarrhythmia or acute coronary syndrome.

Jameson, J. Iatrogenic: I treatment, subtotal hypothyroidism references in apa total thyroidectomy, external irradiation of neck for lymphoma or cancer. Radioimaging can evaluate the size, shape, and iodine distribution of the thyroid gland and evaluate for compression of vital structures. Variable thyroid hypoplasia, choreoathetosis, pulmonary problems. This biochemical profile might be an indication of mild hypothyroidism, with a potential increased risk of metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease recorded among adults.

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See more Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism28 Determining abdominal obesity cut-offs and relevant risk factors for anthropometric indices in Turkish children and adolescents. Subscribe: Institutional or Individual. Autosuggest Results.

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Is there a relationship between cardiovascular risk factors apa dehydroepiandrosterone ap levels in childhood obesity? Insulin secretion response during oral glucose tolerance test is related to low cardiorespiratory fitness in obese adolescents. Autosuggest Results. Determining abdominal obesity cut-offs and relevant risk factors for anthropometric indices in Turkish children and adolescents. The Guidelines are not inclusive of all proper approaches or methods, or exclusive of others.

Sign in via Shibboleth. Forgot Password? Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. Davis AT Collection. Withdrawal of supraphysiologic thyroxine treatment in individuals with an intact thyroid. Recipient Email Address es required - use a semicolon to separate multiple addresses Separate multiple email address with semi-colons up to 5. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol.

Levothyroxine should be taken on an empty stomach. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for the evaluation and treatment of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism [published correction appears in Endocr Pract. Table 2. The clinical presentation is often confused with septic shock.

Structures hypothyroidism references in apa thyroid hormones. Determining abdominal obesity cut-offs and relevant risk factors for anthropometric indices in Turkish children and adolescents. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. Calcitonin plays a minimal role in calcium homeostasis in humans but the C-cells are important because of their involvement in medullary thyroid cancer.

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Insulin secretion response hypothyroidism references in apa oral glucose tolerance test is related to low cardiorespiratory fitness in obese adolescents. Password Error: Please enter Password. March27 3 : Please review before submitting. Sign in via OpenAthens. Hypothyroidism occurs in about 1 in newborns and neonatal screening is performed in most industrialized countries. Thyroxine T 4 contains four iodine atoms.

Thank you! This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. If your institution subscribes hypothyroidism references in apa this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Subscribe: Institutional or Individual. Please enter a valid email address.

Reference Manager. Infants and children may present more often with lethargy and failure to thrive. In: Barnard NDN, editors. Central causes of hypothyroidism typically present with other manifestations of hypothalamic or pituitary dysfunction, and are characterized by inappropriately normal or low levels of TSH relative to insufficient thyroid hormone.

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Return to:. You have successfully created a MyAccess Profile for alertsuccessName. Password Error: Please enter Password. Password Error: Please enter Password. Previous Chapter. Calcitonin plays a minimal role in calcium homeostasis in humans but the C-cells are important because of their involvement in medullary thyroid cancer. This issue.

Davis AT Collection. In addition, benign nodules and various forms of thyroid cancer are relatively common and amenable to detection by physical examination. Dennis Kasper, et al. Mutations that cause congenital hypothyroidism are being increasingly identified, but most remain idiopathic Table

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