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Iodine induced hypothyroidism occurrence and epidemiology and infection – Effects of drugs on thyroid function tests

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David Stewart
Tuesday, October 17, 2017
  • Natural history of the transition from euthyroidism to overt autoimmune hypo- or hyperthyroidism: a prospective study.

  • Hypothyroidism can be safely and effectively treated with a drug — the synthetic thyroid hormone levothyroxine Synthroid, Levoxyl, others.

  • Scientific Review and Clinical Applications. The metal concentration in tissues has been rarely measured in the thyroid

  • Thyroid function and prevalence of anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies in a population with borderline sufficient iodine intake: influences of age and sex. MkhitarovKathleen M.

  • Thyroid autoantibodies and thyroid function in subjects exposed to Chernobyl fallout during childhood: evidence for a transient radiation-induced elevation of serum thyroid antibodies without an increase in thyroid autoimmune disease. Klin Wochenschr.

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Tamai, H. Can't sign in? Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding iodine among patients with hyperthyroidism in the Free State, South Africa.

  • N Engl J Med.

  • Ross DS. Prevalence of thyroid disease, thyroid dysfunction and thyroid peroxidase antibodies in a large, unselected population.

  • Am J Med —3.

  • Prevalence of hypothyroidism and Graves disease in sarcoidosis. Pseudo-abnormalities in thyroid function tests should be differentiated from true thyroid dysfunction.

  • In slides of paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues from patients undergoing thyroidectomy, EVB19 DNA was revealed in hypothjroidism or in lymphocytesparticularly in papillary TC PTCleading to hypothesize that EVB19 is implicated in thyroid carcinogenesis Iodine content of salt 2 years after the introduction of the universal salt iodisation legislation in Lesotho.

  • The panel assessed the data for quality, scope, and relevance. Increased hepatic enzymes from certain antiepileptic medications phenobarbital, carbamazepine or phenytoin and the antibiotic, rifampicin, may reduce the half-lives of T4 and T3.

In the Whickham survey cohort, the mean annual incidence of hypothyroidism moon face in women was 0. The human exposure scenario with lifelong exposure to a vast mixture of chemicals in low doses and the large physiological variation in thyroid hormone levels between individuals render human studies very difficult. Citing articles via Web of Science A double-blind RCT reported significant improvement in symptomatic patients with subclinical hypothyroidism treated with levothyroxine compared with placebo. The use of iodised salt in the manufacturing of processed foods in South Africa: bread and bread premixes, margarine, and flavourants of salty snacks. Iodine and iron status of pregnant women in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo. Klin Wochenschr.

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Does microbiota composition affect thyroid homeostasis? Effects of amiodarone therapy on thyroid function. Females show greater immune reactivity 7and this increased immunocompetence might epidemiologgy to greater resilience to infectious and non-infectious disorders. Longitudinal study of antibodies against thyroid in patients undergoing interferon-alpha therapy for HCV chronic hepatitis. Polychlorinated biphenyls and their metabolites and polybrominated diethyl ethers bind to thyroid transport proteins, such as transthyretin, displace thyroxine, and disrupt thyroid function. Low serum thyrotropin thyroid-stimulating hormone in older persons without hyperthyroidism.

Iodine and iron status of pregnant women in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo. Smoke exposure is associated with a lower prevalence of serum thyroid autoantibodies and thyrotropin concentration elevation and a higher prevalence of mild thyrotropin concentration suppression in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NHANES III. Uncommon Causes of Thyrotoxicosis. Sustainable control of iodine deficiency in Iran: Beneficial results of the implementation of the mandatory law on salt iodization.

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NACB laboratory medicine practice guidelines. TSH secretion in Cushing's syndrome: relation to glucocorticoid excess, diabetes, goiter, and the "sick euthyroid syndrome. Thyroid autoimmune disorders in patients with chronic hepatitis C before and during interferon-alpha therapy.

Iodine-Induced Thyroid Dysfunction. Failure to find an association between hepatitis C virus and thyroid hypothyroidisn. The types of drug-induced hyperthyroidism are:. Sign in to download free article PDFs Sign in to access your subscriptions Sign in to your personal account. In a woman with hypothyroidism, indications of secondary hypothyroidism are a history of amenorrhea rather than menorrhagia and some suggestive differences on physical examination. Arch Intern Med —

Drug-induced hypothyroidism during anti-tuberculosis treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: notes from the field. Non-surgical approach to the benign nodular goiter: new opportunities by recombinant human TSH-stimulated I-therapy. Cukier, P. Thyroid Emergencies. Albert, B.

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KranzlerMurray B. Fatourechi, V. Rights and permissions Reprints and Permissions. Silent thyroiditis. Management of endocrine disease: subclinical thyrotoxicosis: prevalence, causes and choice of therapy.

  • The panel assessed the data for quality, scope, and relevance.

  • Smoking and risk of Graves' disease.

  • Amiodarone for treatment of cardiac arrhythmias has serious adverse effects on the thyroid function.

  • Tuberculosis Res.

Extensive review with more than references. The intestinal tract is determinant in metabolizing nutrients, drugs, and hormones, exogenous and endogenous iodothyronines, and micronutrients implicated in thyroid homeostasis. Soldin OP, Aschner M. Nutrients 7 —

Vagenakisand Kostas B. Data addressing all other associations of subclinical hyperthyroid disease and adverse clinical outcomes or treatment benefits were rated as insufficient or absent. Symptoms of IFN-induced hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism may be difficult to distinguish from the side-effects of IFN therapy. Iodine is essential for thyroid function.

A cautious iodization program bringing iodine intake to a low recommended level is associated with an increase in the prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies in the population. Sign up now. Iodine nutrition: iodine content of iodized salt in the United States. Potential risks of excess iodine ingestion and exposure: statement by the american thyroid association public health committee. Amouzegar, A.

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Smoking and risk of Graves' disease. Mayo Clinic does not endorse any of the third party products and services advertised. Seasonal variation in plasma thyroid hormone concentrations in coastal versus inland populations of juvenile American alligators Alligator mississippiensis : Influence of plasma iodide concentrations.

Thyroid autoantibodies may be of some use in the evaluation hypothjroidism hypothyroidism, although they are not particularly specific and sensitive. The dose is adjusted every 6 weeks until maintenance dose is achieved. In addition to primary and secondary hypothyroidism, other conditions may epidemiolpgy decreased levels of total T4, such as euthyroid sick syndrome and serum thyroxine-binding globulin TBG deficiency. FSM, FP, AA, and BS gave substantial contribution in the conception and design of the work, and in writing the paper; gave the final approval of the version to be published; agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. Still, the possibility that some patients may benefit cannot be ruled out. Other manifestations: Pleural or abdominal effusions pleural effusions develop slowly and only rarely cause respiratory or hemodynamic distresshoarse voice, and slow speech.

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It customarily occurs after an incremental rise iodine induced hypothyroidism occurrence and epidemiology and infection mean iodine intake in the course of programs for the prevention of iodine deficiency, or when iodine-containing drugs xnd as radiocontrast media or amiodarone are administered. Iodine supplementation for preventing iodine deficiency disorders in children. A Hidden Solution. These changes may occur in localized foci within the gland or in the process of nodule formation. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to iodine and contribution to normal cognitive and neurological function IDcontribution to normal energy-yielding metabolism IDand contribution to normal thyroid function an. Skip to main content Thank you for visiting nature.

Symptoms and Signs. Mult Scler 19 — While alterations in serum T4 and T3 levels are parallel to each other, there are some conditions associated with discrepancies in these tests, including non-thyroidal illness, amiodarone therapy, T3-toxicosis, hypothyroidism, and some rare conditions of impaired de-iodination. However, it may have a place in investigating patients presenting with thyroid nodules to determine whether they are single or multiple. The epidemiology of thyroid disease Mark P. Padmanabhan H. Highly sensitive colorimetric sensor for detection of iodine ions using carboxylated chitosan—coated palladium nanozyme.

How should it be evaluated? Exp Eye Res 65 —6. Environmental exposures and autoimmune thyroid disease. Subject alert. Study Selection and Data Extraction A total of English-language or translated papers were reviewed.


Hyper- and hypothyroidism, frequently in AITD, are associated with bacterial overgrowth in small intestinal or with changes in composition of microbiota The 2nd most common cause is post-therapeutic hypothyroidism, especially after radioactive iodine therapy or surgery for hyperthyroidism or goiter. Endocr Rev 24 — Subclinical hyperthyroidism may result from endogenous overproduction of thyroid hormone or intended, or inadvertent, overadministration of thyroid hormone.

Mahzari, M. Global epidemiology of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. A Hidden Solution. Prevalence and follow-up of abnormal thyrotrophin TSH concentrations in the elderly in the United Kingdom.

Long-term human studies inxuced the effects of environmental chemicals on thyroid-related outcomes such as growth and development are still lacking. TODD, E. Skip Nav Destination Article Navigation. Are cytologic and histopathologic features of hot thyroid nodules different from cold thyroid nodules? Iodine and iron status of pregnant women in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo.


Five-year incidence and progression of thyroid dysfunction in an older population. Side effects of anti-thyroid drugs and their impact on the choice of treatment for thyrotoxicosis in pregnancy. Use of iodine for water disinfection: iodine toxicity and maximum recommended dose. Email address Sign up.

Thyroid disease is a global health problem that can substantially impact well-being, particularly in pregnancy and childhood. Detrimental Effects of Increasing Iodine Supply. Thyrotoxicosis after iodine fortification. In this report, we review the global incidence and prevalence of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, highlighting geographical differences and the effect of environmental factors, such as iodine supplementation, on these data. Tsang, W. The prevalence, incidence and natural course of positive antithyroperoxidase antibodies in a population-based study: Tehran Thyroid Study. Thank you for visiting nature.

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HCV thyroid infection upregulates CXCL10 expression and secretion of thyroid cells, recruiting other Th1 lymphocytes into the gland, leading to the appearance of AITD in predisposed individuals 99 Int J Mol Sci — Prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies is not increased in blood donors with hepatitis C virus infection. Autoimmun Rev 14 —9. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.

Iodine nutrition remains a key determinant of thyroid function worldwide, and continued vigilance against the resurgence of iodine deficiency in previously sufficient regions remains essential. Ogbera, A. Thyroid 11— Thyroid function in pregnancy: what is normal?

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Therefore, serum TSH concentration should be monitored every 6 to 8 weeks during pregnancy and the levothyroxine dose modified as needed. Amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction. Clin Exp Rheumatol 26 :S39—

Schneeberg, N. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis. Stanbury, J. Amouzegar, A. The incidence of autoimmune thyroid disease: a systematic review of the literature.

The Thyroid. Pilot study of urinary iodine concentration and of biochemical thyroid parameters before and after cautious public health intervention on salt iodide content: The Swiss longitudinal — iodine study. Hypothyroidism diet Hypothyroidism and joint pain? Relationship between urinary iodine and goiter prevalence: Results of the Chinese national iodine deficiency disorders survey.


Iodine and iron status of pregnant women in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo. The incidence and prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in Europe: a meta-analysis. Stott, D. MizinaVladimir A.

Can't sign in? Effects of long term iodized table salt consumption on serum T3, T4 and TSH in an iodine deficient area of Bangladesh. WendtYaira Z. Furszyfer, J.

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Thyroid nodules and thyroid autoimmunity in the context of environmental pollution. These drugs do not generally cause clinically significant central hypothyroidism, and their suppressant effect on TSH production is transient. Virol J Cardiac Dysfunction, Arrhythmias, and Adverse Events. What are the consequences of untreated subclinical thyroid disease?

A study reviewed available epidemiologic studies within this field, reporting discordant results between studies of correlations, and suggesting that there are no clear interstudy dose—response associations. Amiodarone for treatment of cardiac arrhythmias has serious adverse effects on the thyroid function. Radioactive iodine therapy commonly causes hypothyroidism and may cause exacerbation of hyperthyroidism or Graves eye disease. In the Whickham survey cohort, the mean annual incidence of hyperthyroidism in women was 0. The addition of ribavirin to interferon-alpha therapy in patients with hepatitis C virus-related chronic hepatitis does not modify the thyroid autoantibody pattern but increases the risk of developing hypothyroidism. Autoimmun Rev —9.

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Lancet Screening for thyroid diseases in an iodine sufficient area with sensitive thyrotrophin assays, and serum thyroid autoantibody and urinary iodide determinations. Are cytologic and histopathologic features of hot thyroid nodules different from cold thyroid nodules? Carle, A.

Volzke, H. Nat Rev Endocrinol 14, — Expert Rev. Womens Health 11— Subclinical Hyperthyroidism. Screening for congenital hypothyroidism: a worldwide view of strategies.

Evaluation of Predictors for the Diagnosis of Hyperthyroidism in Cats. Cost-effectiveness of universal and risk-based screening for autoimmune thyroid disease in pregnant women. Iodine status as determined by urinary iodine excretion in Lesotho two years after introducing legislation on universal salt iodization. Public Health Epidemiol. West Afr. Thiocyanate in excess develops goiter followed by auto immune thyroid diseases even after effective salt iodization in a rural community of north east India.

Endocr Relat Cancer — Clinical practice: subclinical hypothyroidism. The biological basis for IIH appears most often to be mutational events in thyroid cells that aand to autonomy of function. The risk factor for development of thyroid disease during interferon-alpha therapy for chronic hepatitis C. It has been suggested that while activating nicotine receptors on immune cells, the autoimmune profile moves away from Th1 and Th17 responses 42 Viruses activate the adaptive and innate immunity and might cause HT. Extrahepatic manifestations of chronic HCV infection.

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In response, TSH is released, which causes the thyroid to enlarge and trap iodine avidly; thus, goiter results. Clinical judgement and repeat thyroid function tests should be carried out after the illness is resolved. Almost one-third of the world's population lives in areas of iodine deficiency. Hepatology 44 — Iodine-containing medicaments.

The use of iodised salt infecyion the manufacturing of processed foods in South Africa: bread and bread premixes, margarine, and flavourants of salty snacks. Tobacco smoking and thyroid function: a population-based study. Subclinical thyroid disease. Eligar, V. Effects of potassium iodide in concentrations of TSH, tT 3 and tT 4 in serum of subjects with sporotrichosis. Silent painless thyroiditis.

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Incidence rate of symptomatic painless thyroiditis presenting with thyrotoxicosis in Denmark as evaluated by consecutive thyroid scintigraphies. LaurbergI. All prices are NET prices. Zimmermannand Sophie E. KrepkovaValentina V.

Incidence of endocrine dysfunction following the use of different immune checkpoint inhibitor regimens: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Expert Rev. Sriphrapradang, C. Nippoldt, M. Google Scholar 49 Biondi, B. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username.

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Changes in bone mass during prolonged subclinical hyperthyroidism due to L-thyroxine treatment: a meta-analysis. Transient hypothyroidism, similar to the hypothyroid phase of painless thyroiditis silent lymphocytic thyroiditiswhich normalizes after withdrawal of the drug or agent. Comparison of ultrasonography features and malignancy rate of toxic and nontoxic autonomous nodules: a preliminary study. Hepatology — The WHO Global Database on iodine deficiency disorders: the importance of monitoring iodine nutrition.

  • Replacement regimens with synthetic T4 preparations reflect a different pattern in serum T3 response.

  • An underactive thyroid hypothyroidism occurs when your body doesn't make enough thyroid hormones for your body's needs.

  • In a cross-sectional observational study in Shaanxi Province Chinathe relationship between selenium status, dietary factors, and pathological thyroid conditions was investigated. The recommendation is based on fair evidence that the service or intervention can improve important health outcomes.

  • Subclinical hypothyroidism in older persons.

  • The significance of nontoxic thyroid nodules: final report of a year study of the incidence of malignancy.

  • Subclinical hyperthyroidism due to destructive thyroiditis including postviral subacute thyroiditis and postpartum thyroiditis resolves spontaneously. However, a sustained decrease in TSH production leading to a decrease of FT4 central hypothyroidism has rarely been reported during prolonged use of somatostatin analogs.

Prevalence of hypothyroidism and Graves disease in sarcoidosis. Prediction of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in elderly people from one low serum thyrotropin result: a year cohort study. Smoking and thyroid. Corticosteroids are extremely efficacious in type 2 AIT. It remains to be determined whether a continuum of cardiac dysfunction can be expected across the spectrum of subclinical hypothyroidism. Hepatitis C virus infection and thyroid autoimmune disorders: a model of interactions between the host and the environment.

Iodine-induced hypothyroidism as a result of excessive intake of confectionery made ajd tangle weed, Kombu, used as a low calorie food during a bulimic period in a patient with anorexia nervosa. Google Scholar 45 Muller, G. Thyroid 17— Evidence of a geographic variation in frequency. Zosin, I. Subjects Disease prevention Epidemiology Risk factors Thyroid diseases.

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Spectrum of Endocrine Disorders in Central Ghana. Biondi, B. Knudsen, N. Flynn, R.

  • World J Hepatol 8 — To allow ease of comparison with the published literature, the panel assessed the evidence for individuals with serum TSH concentrations between 4.

  • RubioEduardo K. Evaluation of Predictors for the Diagnosis of Hyperthyroidism in Cats.

  • The recommendation is based on good evidence that the service or intervention does not improve important health outcomes or that harms outweigh benefits. E: Recommends against.

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  • Prevention of iodine diseases in Ukraine.

  • Iodine supplementation for preventing iodine deficiency disorders.

The necessity for further evaluation, possible treatment, and the urgency of treatment have not been clearly established. AA and BS revised it critically for important intellectual content. A low TSH is most frequently diagnostic of spontaneous hyperthyroidism. Increases in serum T3 occur gradually, and normal levels are maintained when adequate doses of T4 are given. Clinical circumstances dictate when the retesting should occur. A case-control study. Although patients with pituitary or hypothalamic failure including anorexia nervosa frequently have subnormal serum TSH concentrations, the FT 4 is also usually subnormal.

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Metabolism 15S82—S88 De Groot, L. Bartalena, L. A genetic risk score for thyroid peroxidase antibodies associates with clinical thyroid disease in community-based populations. Jessica FarebrotherMichael B.

Download citation. Increased incidence of thyrotoxicosis after iodine supplementation in an iodine sufficient area. Whole grain rice fortification as a solution to micronutrient deficiency: Technologies and need for more viable alternatives. New User.

Lazarus, J. Casey, B. Thyroxine replacement: a clinical endocrinologist's viewpoint. Coconut oil: Can it cure hypothyroidism? Nikolai, T.

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When evidence was not available, was contradictory, or was judged to be insufficient, the panelists relied on their experience, judgment, and interpretation of the available literature in formulating recommendations for clinical practice. Danzi S, Klein I. National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry Web site.

Author Contributions FSM, FP, AA, and BS gave substantial contribution in the conception and design of the work, and in writing the paper; gave the final approval of the version iodine induced hypothyroidism occurrence and epidemiology and infection be published; agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. A cross-sectional survey. TSH secretion in Cushing's syndrome: relation to glucocorticoid excess, diabetes, goiter, and the "sick euthyroid syndrome. Mult Scler — Subclinical hypothyroidism and the risk of coronary heart disease and mortality. Surgery of Cervical and Substernal Goiter.

Iodine status and prevalence of thyroid disorders after introduction of mandatory universal salt iodization for 16 years in China: a cross-sectional study in 10 cities. Total and age-specific incidence of Graves' thyrotoxicosis, toxic nodular goitre and solitary toxic adenoma in Malmo — Forgot your password? The effects of different doses of oral iodized oil on goiter size, urinary iodine, and thyroid-related hormones.

The prevalence of undiagnosed thyroid disorders in a previously iodine-deficient area. Thyroid 26— Pierce, M. Endocrine side effects of cancer immunotherapy.

Select Format Select format. Considering the data from individual studies, one prospective study found no association between low serum TSH and accelerated loss in BMD. Toxic Nodular Goiter. One of the most important criteria for recommending a screening test is that screening asymptomatic persons and treating them for the condition should result in improved measurable and important health outcomes when compared with persons who are not screened and who present with signs or symptoms of the disease.

Sustaining iodine deficiency disorders IDD control programme. Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. Connolly, R. Figures References Related Details.

Graves Disease Diffuse Hyperplasia. Issue Date : May Tellez, M. Drug Safety 1346—55

The effects of iodine level and source on iodine carry-over in eggs and body tissues of laying hens. PathakFrank R. Teratology public affairs committee position paper: Iodine deficiency in pregnancy. Indian J. Todd, C.

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Okinaka, S. The spectrum of thyroid disease in a community: the Whickham survey. Global iodine nutrition: where do we stand in ? Thyroid 25— An increase in thyrotoxicosis in southern Tasmania after an increase in dietary iodine. Acta Med. Figure 1: Map of overt hyperthyroidism prevalence selective populations used when representative data not available.

Decreased receptor binding of biologically inactive thyrotropin in central hypothyroidism: effect of treatment with thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Thyroid 20 — Metabolic manifestations: Cold intolerance, modest weight gain due to fluid retention and decreased metabolismhypothermia. Brent GA. Twin studies as a model for exploring the aetiology of autoimmune thyroid disease.